## Peer Review Criteria

### Problem Statement, Conceptual Framework, and Research Question

- The introduction builds a logical case and context for the problem statement
- The problem statement is clear and well-articulated
- The conceptual framework is explicit and justified
- The research question (research hypothesis where applicable) is clear, concise, and complete
- The variables being investigated are clearly identified and presented

### Reference to the Literature and Documentation

- The literature review is up-to-date
- The number of references is appropriate and their selection is judicious
- The review of the literature is well integrated
- The references are mainly primary sources
- Ideas are acknowledged appropriately (scholarly attribution) and accurately
- The literature is analyzed and critically appraised

### Relevance

- The study is relevant to the mission of the journal or its audience
- The study addresses important problems or issues; the study is worth doing
- The study adds to the literature already available on the subject
- The study has generalizability because of the selection of subjects, setting, and educational intervention or materials

### Research Design

The research design:

- Is defined and clearly described, and is sufficiently detailed to permit the study to be replicated
- Is appropriate (optimal) for the research question
- Has internal validity, potential confounding variables or biases are addressed
- Has external validity, including subjects, settings, and conditions
- Allows for unexpected outcomes or events to occur
- And conduct of the study are plausible

### Instrumentation, Data Collection, and Quality Control

- The development and content of the instrument are sufficiently described or referenced, and are sufficiently detailed to permit the study to be replicated
- The measurement instrument is appropriate given the study’s variables; the scoring method is clearly defined
- The psychometric properties and procedures are clearly presented and appropriate
- The data set is sufficiently described or referenced
- Observers or raters were sufficiently trained
- Data quality control is described and adequate

### Population and Sample

- The population is defined clearly, both for subjects (participants) and stimulus (intervention), and is sufficiently detailed to permit the study to be replicated
- The sampling procedures are sufficiently described
- Subject samples are appropriate to the research question
- Stimulus samples are appropriate to the research question
- Selection bias is addressed

### Data Analysis and Statistics

- Data analysis procedures are sufficiently described, and are sufficiently detailed to permit the study to be replicated
- Data analysis procedures conform to the research design; hypotheses, models, or theory drives the data analyses
- The assumptions underlying the use of statistics are fulfilled by the data, such as measurement properties of the data and normality of distributions
- Statistical tests are appropriate (optimal)
- If statistical analysis involves multiple tests or comparisons, proper adjustment of significance level for chance outcomes was applied
- Power issues are considered in statistical studies with small sample sizes
- In qualitative research that relies on words instead of numbers, basic requirements of data reliability, validity, trustworthiness, and absence of bias were fulfilled

### Reporting of Statistical Analyses

- The assumptions underlying the use of statistics are considered, given the data collected
- The statistics are reported correctly and appropriately
- The number of analyses is appropriate
- Measures of functional significance, such as effect size or proportion of variance accounted for, accompany hypothesis-testing analyses

### Presentation of Results

- Results are organized in a way that is easy to understand
- Results are presented effectively; the results are contextualized
- The results are complete
- The amount of data presented is sufficient and appropriate
- Tables, graphs, or figures are used judiciously and agree with the text

### Discussion and Conclusion: Interpretation

- The conclusions are clearly stated; key points stand out
- The conclusions follow from the design, methods, and results; justification of conclusions is well articulated
- Interpretations of the results are appropriate; the conclusions are accurate (not misleading)
- The study limitations are discussed
- Alternative interpretations for the findings are considered
- Statistical differences are distinguished from meaningful differences
- Personal perspectives or values related to interpretations are discussed
- Practical significance or theoretical implications are discussed; guidance for future studies is offered

### Title, Authors, and Abstract

- The title is clear and informative
- The title is representative of the content and breadth of the study (not misleading)
- The title captures the importance of the study and the attention of the reader
- The number of authors appears to be appropriate given the study
- The abstract is complete (thorough); essential details are presented
- The results in the abstract are presented in sufficient and specific detail
- The conclusions in the abstract are justified by the information in the abstract and the text
- There are no inconsistencies in detail between the abstract and the text
- All of the information in the abstract is present in the text
- The abstract overall is congruent with the text; the abstract gives the same impression as the text

### Presentation and Documentation

- The text is well written and easy to follow
- The vocabulary is appropriate
- The content is complete and fully congruent
- The manuscript is well organized
- The data reported are accurate (e.g., numbers add up) and appropriate; tables and figures are used effectively and agree with the text
- Reference citations are complete and accurate

### Scientific Conduct

- There are no instances of plagiarism
- Ideas and materials of others are correctly attributed
- Prior publication by the author(s) of substantial portions of the data or study is appropriately acknowledged
- There is no apparent conflict of interest
- There is an explicit statement of appropriate regulatory and governance approval(s) for studies directly involving human subjects or data about them, or a statement why this is/these are not required[1]

[1] The wording of point 77 has been slightly amended with the permission of the AAMC.